I’ve been here many times. Around Plava dl to Beclav. I never returned the bag to Tvrdonice, a village near the Slovakian border. I had no idea that at a depth of about nine kilometers below me, at this time of the year, there are half a billion cubic meters of natural gas under pressure at 14 MPa.
Tvrdonice natural gas reservoir area
As a hot air balloon pilot, I have a lot of respect for gas. Of course, in the balloon koi it is propane, prepared by solid fraction liquefied petroleum gas, and not natural gas. But the idea of this enormous accumulation of energy is really counterintuitive. My guide after the Tvrdonice gas plant is its leader Peter idiin, who also has experience with the technologically specific and globally unique gas plant in Hjy.
Gas storage could be described very quickly in a nutshell: it involves taking gas from the transit system and forcing it underground with the help of a compressor. But the whole process is of course much more complicated. The intruding season begins when the heating season slowly recedes, i.e. usually around April 1st, and the intruding season begins when the whole system goes into reverse and vice versa. In this case, the imaginary D-Day is the 1st day of the month, when the orders start to make demands on you.
Technology of the Tvrdonice natural gas pipeline
I have my own rules, of which, among other things, the result and the reason why it is not so simple to set up the serpentine reverse immediately. It is a process that involves pressure, gas safety, its humidity, and therefore the tightness of the oil. This ensures maximum safety. During tours of the complex, the gas detector beeps rhythmically, which Peter has to keep close to himself. The calm rhythm of signaling indicates that there is no natural gas concentration nearby, i.e. don’t get to his lair. Zanme with a non-rud question, where to go with him. Where can gas be stored?
We (the company RWE Gas Storage CZ, editor’s note) have a total of six locations. The collections of Doln Dunajovice, Tvrdonice, Lobodice, Tanovice and Tramberk are found in Moravia, and the only collection of Hje is in the Middle Echs, which, however, is not known from the Moravian ones. exhaust gases. To find, from which gas was released in the 1970s, it was then converted into a storage room.
The fifth Moravian reservoir, Lobodice, is a so-called aquifer reservoir, which means that in the reservoir, the reservoir water is forced out of the porous rock (the so-called collector) and compressed gas takes its place. Lobodice is the oldest gas loitm in Esk. It was built in 1965 and first stored light gas in it. It can fit about 177 million m3 natural gas.
Natural gas storage began in Tvrdonice in 1977. We could imagine the floor here as a kind of sponge sponge. And first, these miniature spaces are where the compressors push the gas. The pressure of pebranho gas from the pipes is about 5.5 MPa. The compressor must fill the gas, compress it and push it underground under pressure to a depth of 1,200 meters. It was pressed to a pressure of 14 MPa.
Those KD compressors for injecting natural gas into ships
Just to give you an idea, a pressure of 14 MPa corresponds roughly to the pressure under water at a depth of 1,400 meters, i.e. if it is covered with fresh water with a density of 1,000 kg/m3, somewhere near the bottom of Lake Tanganyika. Why inject gas into the porous rock? It would not be appropriate to simply remove the tension. empty spaces of the mine? Peter idiin explains it to me on the basis of the famous book Hje. The latter, as the only one in the area, was artificially built in the catchment massif in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The gas is stored here in wells with a diameter of roughly three and a half meters.
At Hjch, corridors with a volume of about 620,000 m were cut over the course of about seven years3. About 75 million cubic meters of gas are stored there. About 550 million cubic meters of gas are stored here in Tvrdonice, in a closed oil field. Zsobnk Hje u Pbrami is one of the few locations in the world that was selected for this beer. There is granite to hit the gas.
Hje natural gas system
The most diverse tightness tests were carried out on them. Here in Tvrdonice, history helped us a little. The gas migrated differently, and finally got into some rock fracture, where it stuck. When looking for deposits, geologists know which locations are suitable. to Peter idiin and added: Try to drill, and when they find something, it’s either oil, gas, or nothing. And when such deposits appear, then it is only a matter of whether they are suitable for storage or not.
In the Czech Republic, we have a total of nine natural gas facilities, which are operated by various companies. RWE Gas Storage CZ’s storage facilities will hold the largest amount of gas. However, they do not have storage gas. The operator of the company only provides storage space and is responsible for the quality of the gas, which then flows from the storage unit back into the gas pipeline. But we’ll get to that.
We will pump gas underground
As the gas consumption decreases, the injection system is switched on. At the beginning of the season, the pressure is a little lower, around 8 MPa, and as we press in large quantities, it goes up to 14 MPa. For that we need compressors behind them.
Compressors for the injection of natural gas into the underground loist
In the spacious hall, a single KD compressor from the 1970s sent gas underground. He put two ekaj on his long work.
Compressor for injecting natural gas into boats
We can press 3 million cups per day with one machine. The maximum we can pressurize is 8 million cubic meters, due to the limits of the surface technology and also the minimum value of the air pressure from the gas pipeline for the compressors, describes to me how the compressor works.
Tom Disi, operational editor of RWE Gas Storage CZ, next to the compressor that pumps natural gas into the tanks.
There is a thermometer on the pipe leading from the compressor and the pipe is warm. As the fist opens the gas, it cools sharply, and when it freezes, it heats up sharply. We can’t release hot gas like this dl. That’s why there are coolers outside. The gas then travels to the probes, explains RWE Gas Storage CZ operational editor Tom Disi, who joins them in the compressor room.
An unassuming house in a field
The probe will determine the path of the gas to and from the aircraft. The probes were divided into operational and observation. The operating current is the gas itself. The observation probe closely monitors the edges of the chamber, if the gas pressure does not reach outside.
Hall of separation, each pipe is connected to the probe.
You have the current oil pressure on the operational probe, but there should be no pressure behind the break. So when the observation probe shows zero, it’s fine, explains the leader of the idiin group.
The Tvrdonice collection has a total of 68 probes. The operational ones can be recognized by the fact that they are connected to the central arel. There is a special system of fittings on it, the so-called production k. Only now do I realize that there are quite a few small houses with probes surrounded by a fence in my field of vision, scattered across the surrounding fields.
Probes around the Tvrdonice cell
When we talk about the safety of the probes, which essentially communicate with the bearing, and there is quite a lot of accumulated gas, we invested a lot in the so-called safety valve probes, 30 and 50 meters underground. And the species is out here. If necessary, the operator can close both valves for a long time. In case of damage, the valve closes automatically when the pressure drops. That way there will be no gas and it won’t have a massive impact on the day. This is how all operating probes and probes under gas are equipped, assures ideon and continues:
When the smoke or gas safety systems detect any anomaly, smoke or gas, report it to the operator. There it is possible to close the valve boundary and depressurize the accumulated gas in the technology through the chimney.
Head of the Tvrdonice collection
I can’t rush into dating
Gas prices from the collection usually start on January 1. The whole process No tb will occur, it is necessary to let the gas settle for about two weeks to equalize the pressure in the various hundred loit. This can be avoided by putting the seeds during gas injection. If this interval were not observed, the subsequent erpn could be damaged.
First, here is the fitting of an artificially constructed collection in Hjch. There is no need for this pause. The capacity there is relatively small, but its technology allows gas to be injected quickly, and then the regime can be quickly turned and sealed.
At Hjch, the technological process can be turned around within two hours and it can be read. You don’t have to wait, and the gas has settled down a little in the rocks, writes Peter idiin
This process in Tvrdonice does not require compressors. The gas is under a pressure of 14 MPa and enters the gas pipeline at a pressure of around 5.5 MPa. On the way back, however, it is necessary to clean the gas from various uncertainties and mainly from water.
Technology for natural gas suen
Let’s stand by the mess of pipes. As I later find out, it’s a suc convoy. This is due to technology, as Mr. Idinin explains to me:
When the gas reaches the oil field, it tends to get wet, and we cannot supply wet gas to the system. Moisture reduces its effectiveness and causes technological problems
Water is introduced from the gas into the dry column with the help of triethylene glycol, which captures the saturated water in the gas. The following is the name of the dew point at the entrance and the fall of the right flow of water. At the beginning of the season, the gas is not filled with water and thus saturated, towards the end of the season it is necessary to remove the excess water.
One hundred probes are injected with methanol to prevent the formation of hydrates from water deposits. When this probe takes a lot of water with it, from 50 to 100 meters the temperature changes to the formation of hydrates. This is something like ice that clogs the probe. Methanol prevents the formation of the hydrate, and the probe can therefore be used, adds Peter idiin.
After extraction, the gas continues into smaller lines, where the extracted volume changes, and the gas goes to the st. Every gas movement in the technology is monitored by a dc center (so-called veln). Here you can see the total value of the probes throughout their history. Inputs to the collection, such as columns, compressors, an overview of pressures, temperatures, etc. From here, it is of course possible to control individual technologies, etc.
Tvrdonice is one of the oldest gas reservoirs in the Czech Republic, which is located on the ground of a white gas deposit. The six storage facilities of RWE Gas Storage CZ are developing the largest capacity of underground gas storage facilities with a total capacity of 29 TWh.
The so-called production for the probe of the Tvrdonice collection
I will leave Tvrdnice and forgive me. In my thoughts, I detach myself from the earth and completely separate myself from reality every day after how long my hard-core cell (or accumulated energy in it) would last until the summer. It is immediately clear to me that this is a big mistake. Tell me what one compressor put underground in a day, i.e. change 1,000,000 cubic meters of natural gas in 24 hours.
I will use the average natural gas equivalence value of approx. 37.8 MJ/m3 and I will not argue in the differences between eg. with alrussian, norwegian or russian gas, etc. For propane, it will be approx. 87.9 MJ/m3, which represents about 46.4 MJ/kg. In one hour of flight, I will sweat about 40 kg of propane in my small balloon. I’m rounding a lot (down), but it seems to me that the energy, compressed during a single day by a single compressor under the drivonic earth, would last me for a flight lasting no more than seven years.